Arthritis is a very common problem. In fact, most of us by the age of 50 will have some ‘wear and tear’ in a couple of joints, usually resulting in minor aches and stiffness. However, for some people this can lead to more intense pain, swelling and stiffness as the soft tissue in a joint becomes inflamed.
In my clinic, I regularly use acupuncture to help relieve the pain and stiffness of arthritis.
Research into acupuncture is increasing our understanding of how acupuncture can ease the pain and inflammation of arthritis by influencing our biochemistry. It is thought that acupuncture can stimulate nerves, leading to release of pain-relieving endorphins. Also, it can inhibit the activity of chemicals called cytokines, known to be mediators of inflammation, such as interleukin, IL-1, IL-6 as well as TNF-alpha. In addition, needling can increase the blood flow through tissues helping to reduce swelling, flush away the mediators of inflammation and bring oxygen and nutrients to the affected tissues. 1
Because of this growing body of evidence, the World Health Organisation has recognised arthritis as a “condition for which the therapeutic effect of acupuncture has been shown” and the Osteoarthritis Research Society International recommends acupuncture as a treatment option for osteoarthritis. A recent report by Arthritis Research UK showed that acupuncture was the best researched and most effective complementary therapy for treating osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and low back pain.
If you want to read more on this subject you could read this article about the science behind acupuncture or this article by WebMD about acupuncture for arthritis.
There have now been many controlled trials of acupuncture for migraine, with some large, high-quality ones in recent years. The results of the latest reviews are quite consistent: acupuncture is significantly better than no treatment/basic care for managing migraine, and appears to be at least as effective as prophylactic drug therapy, often more effective, with fewer contraindications or unpleasant side effects (Linde 2009, Sun 2008). Acupuncture has a similar or slightly better effect than sham procedures, which themselves can perform as well as conventional drugs, indicating that sham acupuncture is not an inactive placebo but a contentious alternative intervention. Acupuncture has been found to be cost-effective (Witt 2008; Wonderling 2004). As well as prevention it may also be used to alleviate symptoms in acute attacks (Li 2009). There is preliminary qualitative evidence from patients that acupuncture can increase coping mechanisms as well as relieve migraine symptoms (Rutberg 2009).
Migraine is thought to begin as an electrical phenomenon in the cerebrum that then affects blood vessels, biochemistry, and causes neurogenic inflammation.
Acupuncture can help in the treatment of migraine by:
- Providing pain relief – by stimulating nerves located in muscles and other tissues, acupuncture leads to release of endorphins and other neurochumoral factors and changes the processing of pain in the brain and spinal cord (Zhao 2008, Zijlstra 2003, Pomeranz 1987)
- Reducing inflammation – by promoting release of vascular and immunomodulatory factors (Kim 2008, Kavoussi 2007, Zijlstra 2003).
- Reducing the degree of cortical spreading depression (an electrical wave in the brain associated with migraine) and plasma levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P (both implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine) (Shi 2010).
- Modulating extracranial and intracranial blood flow (Park 2009).
- Affecting serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine) levels in the brain (Zhong 2007). (Serotonin may be linked to the initiation of migraines; 5-HT agonists (triptans) are used against acute attacks.)